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Threat Group Cards: A Threat Actor Encyclopedia

Permanent link APT group: FIN11

NamesFIN11 (FireEye)
Country[Unknown]
MotivationFinancial crime, Financial gain
First seen2016
Description(FireEye) Mandiant has also responded to numerous FIN11 intrusions, but we’ve only observed the group successfully monetize access in few instances. This could suggest that the actors cast a wide net during their phishing operations, then choose which victims to further exploit based on characteristics such as sector, geolocation or perceived security posture. Recently, FIN11 has deployed CLOP ransomware and threatened to publish exfiltrated data to pressure victims into paying ransom demands. The group’s shifting monetization methods—from point-of-sale (POS) malware in 2018, to ransomware in 2019, and hybrid extortion in 2020—is part of a larger trend in which criminal actors have increasingly focused on post-compromise ransomware deployment and data theft extortion.

Notably, FIN11 includes a subset of the activity security researchers call TA505, Graceful Spider, Gold Evergreen, but we do not attribute TA505’s early operations to FIN11 and caution against using the names interchangeably. Attribution of both historic TA505 activity and more recent FIN11 activity is complicated by the actors’ use of criminal service providers. Like most financially motivated actors, FIN11 doesn’t operate in a vacuum. We believe that the group has used services that provide anonymous domain registration, bulletproof hosting, code signing certificates, and private or semi-private malware. Outsourcing work to these criminal service providers likely enables FIN11 to increase the scale and sophistication of their operations.
ObservedSectors: Defense, Education, Energy, Financial, Hospitality, Retail, Telecommunications, Technology, Transportation.
Countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, Germany, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Spain, UK, USA.
Tools usedAmadey, AndroMut, AZORult, BARBWIRE, BLUESTEAL, Clop, EMASTEAL, FlawedAmmyy, FLOWERPIPE, FORKBEARD, Get2, JESTBOT, Meterpreter, MINEBRIDGE, MINEDOOR, MIXLABEL, NAILGUN, POPFLASH, SALTLICK, SCRAPMINT, SHORTBENCH, SLOWROLL, SPOONBEARD, TinyMet, VIDAR.
Operations performedDec 2019Ransomware attack on Maastricht University
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ta505-hackers-behind-maastricht-university-ransomware-attack/>
Mar 2020U.S. pharmaceutical giant ExecuPharm has become the latest victim of data-stealing ransomware.
ExecuPharm said in a letter to the Vermont attorney general’s office that it was hit by a ransomware attack on March 13, and warned that Social Security numbers, financial information, driver licenses, passport numbers and other sensitive data may have been accessed.
But TechCrunch has now learned that the ransomware group behind the attack has published the data stolen from the company’s servers.
<https://techcrunch.com/2020/04/27/execupharm-clop-ransomware/>
Oct 2020Software AG IT giant hit with $23 million ransom by Clop ransomware
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/software-ag-it-giant-hit-with-23-million-ransom-by-clop-ransomware/>
Dec 2020Global Accellion data breaches linked to Clop ransomware gang
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/global-accellion-data-breaches-linked-to-clop-ransomware-gang/>
Dec 2020Singtel, QIMR Berghofer report Accellion-related data breaches
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/singtel-qimr-berghofer-report-accellion-related-data-breaches/>
Dec 2020New Zealand Reserve Bank breached using bug patched on Xmas Eve
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/new-zealand-reserve-bank-breached-using-bug-patched-on-xmas-eve/>
Jan 2021Australian securities regulator discloses security breach
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/australian-securities-regulator-discloses-security-breach/>
Jan 2021Data breach exposes 1.6 million Washington unemployment claims
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/data-breach-exposes-16-million-washington-unemployment-claims/>
Feb 2021Hacker Claims to Have Stolen Files Belonging to Prominent Law Firm Jones Day
<https://www.wsj.com/articles/hacker-claims-to-have-stolen-files-belonging-to-prominent-law-firm-jones-day-11613514532>
Feb 2021Clop ransomware gang leaks online what looks like stolen Bombardier blueprints of GlobalEye radar snoop jet
<https://www.theregister.com/2021/02/23/bombardier_clop_ransomware_leaks/>
Feb 2021Kroger data breach exposes pharmacy and employee data
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/kroger-data-breach-exposes-pharmacy-and-employee-data/>
Mar 2021Cybersecurity firm Qualys is the latest victim of Accellion hacks
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/cybersecurity-firm-qualys-is-the-latest-victim-of-accellion-hacks/>
Mar 2021Ransomware gang leaks data stolen from Colorado, Miami universities
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ransomware-gang-leaks-data-stolen-from-colorado-miami-universities/>
Mar 2021Energy giant Shell discloses data breach after Accellion hack
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/energy-giant-shell-discloses-data-breach-after-accellion-hack/>
Mar 2021Ransomware gang urges victims’ customers to demand a ransom payment
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ransomware-gang-urges-victims-customers-to-demand-a-ransom-payment/>
Mar 2021Ransomware group targets universities in Maryland, California in new data leaks
<https://www.zdnet.com/article/ransomware-group-targets-universities-of-maryland-california-in-new-data-leaks/>
Mar 2021Ransomware gang leaks data from Stanford, Maryland universities
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ransomware-gang-leaks-data-from-stanford-maryland-universities/>
Apr 2021More Accellion Health Data Breaches Revealed
<https://www.healthcareinfosecurity.com/more-accellion-health-data-breaches-revealed-a-16350>
Jun 2021Clop ransomware is back in business after recent arrests
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/clop-ransomware-is-back-in-business-after-recent-arrests/>
Oct 2021Clop ransomware gang is leaking confidential data from the UK police
<https://securityaffairs.co/wordpress/125792/cyber-crime/clop-ransomware-uk-police.html>
Nov 2021Marine services provider Swire Pacific Offshore hit by ransomware
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/marine-services-provider-swire-pacific-offshore-hit-by-ransomware/>
Counter operationsJun 2021Operation “Cyclone”
Ukraine arrests Clop ransomware gang members, seizes servers
<https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ukraine-arrests-clop-ransomware-gang-members-seizes-servers/>
<https://www.interpol.int/News-and-Events/News/2021/INTERPOL-led-operation-takes-down-prolific-cybercrime-ring>
Information<https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2020/10/fin11-email-campaigns-precursor-for-ransomware-data-theft.html>

Last change to this card: 27 December 2021

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